The appeal of Shaker furniture is found in simplicity and solid craftsmanship. Are Shakers related to the Amish or Mennonites? What are the characteristics of Shaker furniture?
WHO ARE THE SHAKERS?
The Shakers branched from the English Quakers in the mid 1700s. Shakers began shaking, whirling and speaking in tongues during the mainly-silent Quaker worship service.
After her conversion, “Mother” Ann Lee helped establish Shaker beliefs and practices, including celibacy, communal living and pacifism. Under her leadership, the Shakers began settling in the eastern United States about 1775.
Here’s a quick-to-make gift that is sure to be used and used again. Rather than candy, give a homemade gift.
ABOUT THE PATTERN
Find the Green Pepper pattern #527 and notice that it comes with a design for a heart applique! Of course, there are others– a Christmas tree among them, meaning this pattern could be perfect for more than just one holiday! The pattern can be ordered from The Green Pepper by mail, or should be available at Joann Fabrics.
There were many sailing ships fitted with auxiliary steam power on the oceans from the time of the Savannah in 1819, and the somewhat controversial interpretations of the voyages of the Curacao in the late 1820`s. But, true transatlantic steamship travel begins in earnest in 1838 when the Great Western and the Sirius run a race from England to New York. The Great Western started four days behind the Sirius and arrived only hours later. The Great Western was the first ship designed specifically as a transatlantic passenger vessel built to use primarily steam power. She was a side wheeler. The Sirius, also a side wheeler, had actually been designed as a steamer to cross the channel, but was pressed into transatlantic service as a publicity stunt. It is said that she burned her cabin furniture, spare yards, and one mast in the effort to win the race. The ships belonged to two companies competing for the new Atlantic steam passenger business.
The next advances in steamship power were double and triple expansion engines where the steam exhausted from one cylinder powered another. Such engines were soon powerful enough to power screw propellers, the Great Britain was the first “steam screw” in 1845. Developed right around the turn of the 20th Century, steam turbine engines when added to screw propellers were the height of steamship technology. The Titanic, and her sister ships the Britannic and the Olympic were steam ships built in the early Twentieth Century. Although everyone knows that the Titanic met with disaster on her maiden voyage she really was an engineering marvel.
So also was the Queen Elizabeth built with steam turbine engines and screw propellers in the mid 20th Century. As was the Queen Elizabeth II when first built in 1969, although she was later converted to diesel-electric. Steam screws stayed in use for a surprisingly long time, but most new ships now being built have diesel engines tied to electric generators which drive electric motors tied to the propellers.
Lead glazing was never widely used in Egypt and Mesopotamia, although it originated in these areas. This may be due to the difficulty of both preparation and manner of firing, which was technically complex. There is also evidence that much of the hard work that went into the production resulted in failure, making the effort not worth the end results.
ROMAN RED-GLOSS WARES
Roman red-gloss wares were commonly made by dipping the pot or vase into prepared slip, often accompanied by a green lead glaze. Moulds with impressed designs or motifs were normally used to make the actual vessels, although many were wheel-thrown. This procedure was later adapted in various regions and became the beginning foundation of several subsequent pottery innovations, and was in practice up to around 100 BC at Tarsis (Asia Minor), as well as at Alexandria in Egypt. Many of the vessels from these regions were based on metalwork.
Pottery centres were established all throughout the Roman Empire, as it was far easier to create the wares needed ‘on site’, as opposed to transporting breakable vessels. These centres were often near camps or along trade routes, where local and indigenous styles influenced design slightly, but most often Roman techniques were used, thus ensuring their spread throughout Europe.
A decorative floor medallion in the foyer of a home, or a mosaic wallpaper design behind the sink in a powder room are striking ways to personalize the home. In the past, these designs were limited to hand cut stone, or mosaics making the designs limited and the prices high. Water jet floor patterns and mosaic designs are more cost effective, intricate and versatile than ever before.
WHAT IS WATER JET?
Water jet is a means of cutting stone tiles cleanly, and easily. A computer program is used to map out the design, which stones will be placed within it, and where the cuts need to be made. This program then guides a high pressure water stream which slices into the stone.
The result is intricately cut and designed pieces of stone with extremely clean, smooth edges. These pieces can then be joined together with little to no grout joint between them. Often times the pieces will be joined together with an epoxy into one piece, such as a floor medallion or decorative or border and shipped to the job site as is. The solid piece can then be installed with other stone, tile or wood surrounding it for a seamless look.